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1 in a million


If people dont mind and setting aside some unecesarely rude remarks
This is what I can see about mutations

First definitions as half the confusion is related to the fact that 
people assume that a sport is  the same as a mutation( it is not) 
something I have tried to convince you from  in nearly every article 
in the journal
 SPORT: a shoot differing from the mother plant ( 
irrespective of the cause!)
 MUTATION: a heritable change in DNA.
If a green plants mutates to a  variagated one we have a 
sport due to a mutation.
Jim Anderson is right when he says that ON AVERAGE ( my 
addition) mutation frequency is one in a million 
But there are two caveats!
 First the mutation frequency strongly depends on the clone. As an 
example I induced a certain mutation in 3 different yeast strains of 
the same species. one did give me 3 mutants the other 800, the 
third around 10.000 per million
Secondly It strongly depends on the genes involved.
So the frequency of mutation easely varies between 1/10.000 and 
1/100.000.000  depending on the clone and the genes involved
So in my opinion Hosta does not have a very high mutation rate Only 
the gene(s) we are interested in and leads to variegation mutated 
with a high frequency Remember however that most sports are NOT 
due to mutation but to Chim rearr and mitotic recombination.

Ben J.M.Zonneveld
Clusius lab pobox 9505
2300 RA Leiden
The Netherlands
Zonneveld@RULbim.LeidenUniv.NL
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