Re: Plagiarism Story -Part II
Part II of my story continues with a definition of plagiarism. Although
it may be redundant, I want to repeat part of a post sent to hosta-open
on December 26, 1998 on Academic Honesty. It contained information taken
from a six page Booklet prepard by the Faculty of Temple University for
use as a guide for new students entering academic life. The Booklet
outlines the way Faculty and students must behave toward each other and
the appropriate use of one another's thoughts, words, ideas or published
research. It provides guidance and rules to follow to avoid conflicts.
I quote a part of it..."Rules are self evident and follow inevitably
from a respect for the truth. We must not take credit for research, for
ideas, or for words which are not our own. We must not falsify data or
results of research. We must not present any work under false pretenses.
We must understand exactly what is meant by the three major types of
academic dishonesty...plagiarism, violating rules of an assignment and
cheating on an examination"....
"Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of another person's labor, another
person's ideas, words or assistance. There are many forms of plagiarism:
repeating another's sentence as your own, adopting a particularly apt
phrase as your own, paraphrasing someone else's argument as your own, or
even presenting someone else's line of thinking in the development of a
thesis as though it were your own. All of these forms of plagiarism are
prohibited both by the traditional principles of academic honesty and by
the regulations of Temple University. Our education and our research
encourage us to explore and use the ideas of others, and as writers we
frequently will want to use the ideas and even the words of others. It
is perfectly acceptable to do so; but we must never submit someone
else's work as if it were our own, without giving appropriate credit to
"The following types of materials should be acknowledged through an
acceptable form of citation:
(a)Quotations. Whenever you use a phrase, sentence, or longer passage
written (or spoken) by someone else, you must enclose the words in
quotation marks and indicate the exact source of the material. This
applies also to quotations you have altered.
(b)Paraphrasing another's language. Avoid closely paraphrasing another's
words: substituting an occasional synonym, leaving out or adding an
occasional modifier, rearranging the grammar slightly, just changing the
tense of verbs, and so on. Either quote the material directly, using
quotation marks, or put the ideas completely in your own words. In
either case, acknowledgment is necessary. Remember: expressing someone
else's ideas in your own way does not make them yours.
(c) Facts. In a paper you will often use facts that you have gotten from
a lecture, a written work, or some other source. If the facts are well
known, it is usually not necessary to provide a source....But if the
facts are not widely known or if the facts were developed or presented
by a specific source, then you should identify the source for the facts.
(d) Ideas. If you use an idea or ideas you have learned from a lecture,
written work or some other source, then you should identify the
source...whether you agree or disagree with the idea. It does not become
your original idea just because you agree with it."
These definitions and guidelines regarding plagiarism are from an
authoritative source. If anyone does not agree with this assessment, I
suggest they provide their definition of plagirism. Perhaps one from the
Leiden University would also serve, if they have such guidelines.
If no other suggestions for definitions of plagiarism are forthcoming, I
intend to discuss in the next episode (Part III) the historical
background of events as they occurred chronologically.
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