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RE: HYB; anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions

I'm posting the following extract re a recent line of research on anthocyanin.  It has been found that granuals highly packed with anthocyanin can be found in various flowers in addition to what is disolved inside cell sap. This enhances colour significantly.

This fits in with my ponderings re what I have been calling the Anthocyanin Enhancemet effect (AE) from apylla species and how it darkens pigment.
I think we will find it in apylla plants. I also suspect it is dominant and  cumulative, that is the more dosages the more of an effect. I have also been acummulating more and more evidence of its exsistence (AE that is) and interaction effects with other anthocyanin pigment distribution genes eg: "I", plicata etc.

Chuck Chapman

WINEFIELD, CHRISTOPHER S1*, KEVIN S GOULD2, and KENNITH R MARKHAM3. 1New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North, New Zealand; 2School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, P.O. Box 92019, Auckland New Zealand; 3Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt, New Zealand. - Flavonoid sequestration within the vacuolar compartment: A potential role for protein:anthocyanin interactions.

In a wide range of species, floral pigmentation is due to the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the vacuoles of the flower epidermis. In most cases the accumulating anthocyanins are found evenly distributed throughout the vacuolar solution. However in a number of plants there have been reports of aggregations of anthocyanins within the vacuole. These aggregations have been variously described as "blue spherules" in epidermal cells of rose petal, "intravacuolar spherical bodies" in Polygonum cuspidatum seedlings, "ball-like structures" and "crystals" in stock Matthiola incana, petals, "blue crystals" in Larkspur, Consolida ambigua, and red "crystals" in mung bean hypocotyls. We have recently identified and begun characterisation of similar entities in Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus) and Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation). We have termed these structures Anthocyanic Vacuolar Inclusions or AVIs. They are non-membrane bound aggregations of highly pigmented material found in the vacuoles of the petal epidermis. The presence of these structures results in intensification in colour and a significant shift in the absorbance spectra of anthocyanins in these cells. We have isolated the AVIs from the inner region of lisianthus petals and have identified that they consist of a protein:anthocyanin complex to which only a subset of the anthocyanins and flavonoids produced in these tissues is bound. The ongoing characterisation of this complex and the potential implications of these interactions on flavonoid sequestration in plant tissues will be discussed.

Key words: Anthocyanic Vacuolar Inclusions, Eustoma grandiflorium, protein, trap

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