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Re: Anthurium blight

  • Subject: Re: Anthurium blight
  • From: agrsuw@ku.ac.th
  • Date: Fri, 15 Jan 2010 15:47:41 +0700

Dear all,

I strongly agree with J.  People should not be discouraged to purchase and
enjoy anthuriums because of the disease.

The blight has been with us for a very long time.  It will spread only if
the condition (humidity and air movement) is right.

>From my experience in Hawaii (where the blight start to spread when I
studied there) and Thailand, the best way to control is to limit air
humidity and rain-struck in the growing area as well as to provide
ventilation.  Calcium and magnesium slight-deficiencies can also lead to
the problem.

If the disease occurs, remove the infected part as soon as possible.  The
best time to check the symtom is before 10 am.  If the petiole is
infected, just toss the plant.  Keeping infected plant is just to help the
disease to spread.

Please remember that antibiotic can just reduce the pathogen population. 
Frequent use of antibiotic will likely to lead to a resistant strain.

Surawit

>
> Steve:
>
>
>
> Anthurium blight has been with us forever and affects a wide range of
> aroid genera. Breeders, including me, often select for plants that show
> apparent tolerance to it but generally have learned to live with it
> lurking in the wings. I am not sure that there are any Anthurium spp. nor
> hybrids that are truly 100% blight-resistant, although the riparians
> antioquiense and amnicola are known to transmit their tolerance to
> andraeanum hybrid (the so-called andraecolas) offspring. Conversely, there
> are a number of old andraeanum and crystallinum hybrids and quite a few
> montane spp. that are exquisitely susceptible to blight. Whether or not we
> are seeing more aggressive strains emerging in the trade is another matter
> entirely; I have not imported stock from the 'States since 2006 so would
> not be the right individual to address this possibility. It would be
> interesting to hear from Denis Rotolante, who would certainly know whether
> they are seeing new antibiotic-resistant strains, and with whom I
> exchanged info on Xanthomonas management in greenhouses in 2000-2001.
>
>
>
> I completely disagree with the notion that small scale growers cannot
> effectively control this blight and should not be buying anthuriums now
> because of it (!!!). While the last time I actually had a lab make a
> positive pathogen determination for me was almost 10 years back, I think
> many of us know it when we see it, and I certainly no longer have the
> dread that I used to have for it when I first started growing anthurium in
> the late 90s. I suffered a number of severe outbreaks stemming from
> imported plants early in the last decade but, frankly, I have not had a
> serious problem with it for years in spite of growing more than "just a
> few" plants for cut flower ('Tropic Fire' and my own hoffmannii based
> hybrids) and 0000s of foliage-type collector goodies.
>
>
>
> Basically, what makes anthurium blight control especially difficult for
> commercial growers is that the pathogen is rapidly spread, not only by
> mechanical means such as non-disinfected cutting tools, employees' hands,
> clothes, etc. - DR mentioned once that Cuban treefrogs clambering from
> plant to plant in his greenhouses were a suspected vector! -  but also by
> splashing water and leaves banging against each other (this is a bad thing
> generally for all anthuriums!). Anyone who has this problem should be
> extremely careful to avoid "hard" overhead watering or exposure to rain.
> While this seems counterintuitive to a tropical aroid fan, bestest and
> fastest control is gained when foliage is kept dry, well-ventilated but
> nearly motionless in order to minimize mechanical damage to the leaves
> that facilitates entry for the bacteria.
>
>
>
> - My frontline treatment for foliar infection is Agrimycin (streptomycin
> sulfate 17%) AFTER removing all visibly infected plant tissue to a point
> well beyond the classic yellow halo line circumscribing necrotic tissue. I
> would need to check my notes to see at what concentrations I usually
> apply, but I do seem to recall that I make three apps about 5-8 days
> apart. I often rotate or follow-up with copper-based ag-chem although it
> is contra-indicated in the literature...some have recommended systemic
> copper but I have found it unnecessary, expensive and quite phytotoxic.
>
>
>
> - While I occasionally use concentrated quat ammonium dips for
> disinfecting my pruners (at least three in the greenhouse, used in
> rotation), I definitely favor flaming tools between cuts to all my plants
> to red hot. If you do not consistently disinfect tools between plants,
> IMO, you will never gain good blight control once it is firmly established
> in your collection.
>
>
>
> - It is VERY important to remove infected leaves once they are visibly
> blighted to avoid the blight becoming systemic. I will say that my
> experience has been that if one permits a severe blight to extend from the
> lamina down the petiole (which will often mush at the geniculum and the
> base) to the main stem, the plant is generally going to hand in its lunch
> pail in very short order. If this occurs, toss these critters asap.
>
>
>
> - It seems that many growers-gardeners love to fondle their plants when
> they're in their grow spaces. I cannot emphasize enough that any handling
> of aroids that are known or suspected of being blighted should be kept to
> an absolute minimum, and hands disinfected between this kind of
> manipulation.
>
>
>
> Note: IME, Agrimycin will invariably burn/disfigure leaves of Anthurium
> veitchii and its hybrids, usually quite severely, as well as some old
> andraeanum primary hybrids and few others. It can also be extremely hard
> on seedlings.
>
>
>
> J
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> Date: Mon, 11 Jan 2010 13:54:00 -0600
> From: Steve@exoticrainforest.com
> To: aroid-l@gizmoworks.com
> Subject: [Aroid-l] Anthurium blight
>
> A warning from our friend Leland Miyano from information originating from
> botanist David Scherberich.
>
> There is now a very bad Anthurium blight which may be spreading.  At least
> two gardens in France have had to deal with this one which has no cure.
> The one that is really bad is Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae
> which causes the leaf margins to turn yellow and all the leaves to drop.
> I would suggest you be very careful about buying new Anthurium right now!
> This has the potential to kill an entire collection.
>
> Some species appear resistant but others spread it quickly.  Some
> commercial growers in Hawaii lost almost entire crops of ornamental
> Anthurium (the kind you buy in the store) so be very careful about buying
> any Anthurium in a local nursery or discount store!
>
> http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1392979/
>
> Any of you that are knowledgeable about this blight please pass along what
> you know.
>
>
> Steve
> www.ExoticRainforest.com
>
>
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