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RE: Australian ferns

  • Subject: RE: [ferns] Australian ferns
  • From: Peter Bostock pbostock@ozemail.com.au
  • Date: Wed, 05 Apr 2006 07:47:13 +1000
  • In-reply-to: <7742ABEB7FB42F4384402A14CA97415728DC3A@xmb-sjc-22e.amer.ci sco.com>

 Hi, Bob,

there is in fact at least one Ph.D. student working on the problem in
Austrlaia. But H. dalhousieana, in particular, is proving very difficult,
and of course, with so few known in the wild, the initial steps of
obtaining propagating material must be very sensitively approached. It
has long had a reputation as difficult to grow. This probably came about
when wild-harvested plants were sent to sub-tropical and temperate
growers, who promptly lost them.

Worth noting also that taxonomy in the Huperzia group still needs
attention particularly in the Asian Pacific region, and species limits
may change thereby requiring a change to conservation responses.

There are also increasing arguments about cost of protecting species
whose populations may have reached critical viability levels. However in
many cases, the only non-viable population for some ferns is zero, since
many have vegetative reproduction and a single plant can persist for a
very long time as rhizome growing ahead and dying off behind. Pteridium
springs to mind, but also Microsorum, Drynaria and many others in
Polypodiaceae, Thelypteridaceae etc.

The New South Wales government has spent quite a few thousand dollars in
the last few years helping to protect a single plant of Angiopteris
evecta. Last one left in that state, although in Queensland it is a
common component of northern wet-tropics rainforests, and also has
relictual populations ranging from 12 to 50 crowns (although up to 3 or 4
in a clump will be vegetative clones) in southern and central Queensland,
and two plants known in the Northern Territory.

Peter

At 10:24 PM 4/04/2006, you wrote:

  Peter:

  If Huperzia dalhousiana (and other rare species) are so endangered,
  why
  isn't there a move to try and replicate them to save them from
  extinction, instead of laws against propagating them?
  -Thanks,
  -BN

  -----Original Message-----
  From: owner-ferns@hort.net on behalf of Peter Bostock
  Sent: Tue 04/04/06 02:18
  To: ferns@hort.net
  Subject: Re: [ferns] Australian ferns

   Wayne,

  I am a botanist with the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency -
  we
  issue collecting licences under scientific, educational and other
  permitting methods in Queensland, where the majority of these ferns
  occur.

  A great many of these would not be available in the trade, although
  stock
  plants may be held by various specialist nurseries. Many are
  endangered
  or vulnerable, and these are strongly controlled both for collecting
  within the State, and for export. Most ferns would require an export
  licence from the Australian Government, in addition to the local
  collecting permits. The exceptions would be where scientific material
  was
  being exchanged between CITES-licenced organisations and then only
  for
  non-CITES-listed species. In addition, you may very well need a
  phyto-sanitary certificate for any living plant material, I'm not
  sure if
  this includes spores.

  The Queensland Tassel ferns are very strongly controlled - most are
  vulnerable, a couple endangered, and one or two (H. phlegmaria and
  phlegmarioides, for example) are Rare. Almost all the epiphytes are
  being
  propagated by cuttings, under licence, and are becoming quite widely
  available at local plant outlets.

  You can absolutely forget about Huperzia dalhousiana, the blue tassel
  fern, which before Cyclone Larry hit the north a few weeks ago was
  known
  from perhaps 9 specimens over a 1000km range; now it may very well be
  half that. It is specifically covered in Qld legislation as being
  illegal
  to grow!

  You may like to contact the Qld EPA web site on www.epa.qld.gov.au
  and
  check out the one-stop permitting. Try the EcoAccess tab across the
  top
  of the screen, and then choose "Plants and Animals". An email to the
  staff there may help you in your enquiries.

  The Australian Government web site at www.deh.gov.au also would
  provide
  helpful information, including permitting under CITES and export
  permits.

  Platycerium veitchii and P. bifurcatum are controlled for sale even
  by
  amateurs, and I think spores would be your only suitable export
  method.
  All 4 Australian stag- and elk-horns are being grown in USA as far as
  I
  know, plus a few hybrids.

  You are welcome to try spores of Schizaea (some incl. S. dichotoma &
  S.
  bifida are widespread and common), Tmesipteris (all are protected
  plants), Ophioglossum and Botrychium species (some are quite common),
  Lycopodiella cernua (very common in coastal swamps & sandy areas),
  Helminthostachys zeylanica (relatively common across northern
  Australia)
  because as far as I am aware, none of these are amenable to spore
  culture!

  Leptopteris fraseri is quite uncommon and all populations are within
  protected areas - spores are green and short-lived so I doubt would
  survive trip to USA.

  Not sure what Teratophyllum aculeatum is, try T. brightiae -again
  very
  uncommon, restricted pretty much to protected areas.

  I've added some other notes below...I hope I don't come across as too
  negative but I strongly advise against export of most of these as
  living
  plants.

  Peter

  At 01:46 AM 2/04/2006, Wayne+Svetlana wrote:

  My wife and I will visit Australia for 2 months in Aug-Oct 2007. I
  was the AFS spore exchange manager for 5 yrs and my ultimate goal is
  to share these ferns or spores with other competent fern lovers. I
  love primitive ferns and would like to legally collect some ferns and
  their allies listed below. I love these plants and wouldn't dream of
  harming and native populations. Are there any Aussies that would be
  willing to help me in this endeavor. I would pay all expenses
  involved plus something for your trouble. I was the AFS spore
  exchange manager for 5 yrs and my ultimate goal is to share these
  ferns or spores with other competent fern lovers.

  Collect as plants:

  >Angiopteris Evecta     >> a weed on one of the Hawaiian Islands!
  Spores would probably be the way to go, if you could source them
  Marattia Salcinia       >> also can be grown from spore - not in
  Australia - this is the New Zealand species
  Marattia oreades         >> as above - this is the Australian species

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p274.jpg>Phylloglossum
  drummondii

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p292.jpg>Todea barbara
  >> green spores so difficult to transport & keep spores alive.

  Dipteris conjugata      >> quite uncommon in Australia - my view was
  that it resents cultivation, although a colleague of mine says it
  grows easily (in Papua New Guinea) on big beds of red clay - no
  fertiliser allowed and no competition from other species.

  Collect as cuttings:

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p181.jpg>Huperzia
  australiana - southern Australia
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p241.jpg>Huperzia
  phlegmaria
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p242.jpg>Huperzia
  squarrosa
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p34.jpg>Huperzia varia

  Huperzia prolifera *** relatively common in Qld, but only recently
  has this been recognised. Many plants assigned to H. varia in the
  past are actually H. prolifera.

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p244.jpg>Hymenophyllum
  flabellatum >> widespread filmy fern

  Collect as cuttings of sporophyll

  *** I doubt you will be able to export any of these as living plants
  ***
  =====================================================================

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p252.jpg>Lycopodium
  deuterodensum
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p253.jpg>Lycopodium
  fastigatum
  Lycopodiella limosa              >> very rare - restricted to eastern
  Cape York Peninsula.
  Lycopodium volubile              >> only recorded once in Australia
  (1909/1910) now presumed extinct
  Selaginella longipinna  >> widespread and common in the north of
  Queensland
  Selaginella australiensis        >> widespread and common in the
  north of Queensland
  Selaginella uliginosa            >> common - but unlikely to grow
  from spores
  Lycopodium squarrosum            >> see notes above
  Lycopodium serpentinum  ?? southern Australia
  Lycopodium proliferum
  Lycopodium polytrichoides
  Lycopodium phlegmarioides
  Lycopodium phlegmaria
  Lycopodium myrtifolium  >> this is same as H. varia
  Lycopodium fastigiatum  >> southern Australia
  Lycopodium dalhousianum >> no way! See notes above
  Lycopodiella cernuum             >> see above
  Lycopodium carinatum

  Elaphoglossum queenslandicum    >> neither Elaphoglossum is common,
  but I guess spores would be OK. Most populations would be on
  Protected reserves.
  Elaphoglossum callifolium

  Collected as spores:

  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p217.jpg>Christella
  dentata >> widespread and common, a weed of suburbia in eastern
  Queensland, and has colonised the Caribbean and Florida.

  Can't imagine you will have much luck with Isoetes - many are rare,
  and
  probably subject to State Regulations, except in Qld where we have
  only 5
  or 6 official collections for 3 species!If you find one in Qld I'd
  love
  to see it!

  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p246.jpg>Isoetes
  gunnii
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p246.jpg>Isoetes
  muelleri
  >Isoetes brevicula
  >Isoetes elatior
  >Isoetes humilior
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p95.jpg>Marsilea
  drummondii
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p273.jpg>Ophioglossum
  >lusitanicum subsp. coriaceum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p77.jpg>Ophioglossum
  pendulum
  >Ophioglossum polyphyllum
  >Ophioglossum reticulatum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p280.jpg>Platycerium
  veitchii
  >Platycerium bifurcatum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p282.jpg>Platyzoma
  microphyllum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p288.jpg>Schizaea
  bifida
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p289.jpg>Schizaea
  dichotoma
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p288.jpg>Schizaea
  rupestris
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p169.jpg>Sticherus
  flabellatus
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p63.jpg>Tmesipterus
  truncata
  >Tmesipteris lanceolata

  Trichomanes mindorense: not sure why you picked on this one - one of
  the
  rarer filmy ferns in Queensland - there are many more that are much
  more
  widely distributed, especially in southern Australia. But as all are
  green spored, I would doubt their viability. And I suspect getting
  rhizome material out of Australia would be quite difficult.

  >Trichomanes mindorense
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p293.jpg>Vittaria
  elongata

  >Psilotum complanatum   >> A high epiphyte in Northern Australia, not
  very easy to obtain. Spores impossible to grow.
  >Bolbitis quoyana       >> fairly common in north-eastern QLd
  (wet-tropics) - spores would be a goer here.
  >Christella parasitica >> relatively uncommon but weedy plant of
  pastures and rainforest margins in wetter areas of eastern Queensland
  from NSW border (30deg S) right up to the Wet tropics at 15-17 deg S.

  >Leptopteris fraseri >> see comment above
  >Helminthostachys Zeylanica >> ditto

  >Sphaerocionium lyallii     >> why would you want this? Rare filmy
  fern - I would suggest its lifespan in captivity would be shorter
  than a gnat!

  >Belvisia mucronata     >> not particularly common but easy to grow -
  spores would be the way to go here.

  >Teratophyllum brightiae >> forget it!
  >Botrychium australe     >> see above
  >Dictymia brownii       >> OK - spores would be easy
  >Pleurosorus rutifolius  >> probably OK, but quite hard to find. Only
  likes drier country W of the Great Dividing Range of eastern
  Australia and spends much of its time shrivelled up.

  >Teratophyllum aculeatum >> see above.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  To sign-off this list, send email to majordomo@hort.net with the
  message text UNSUBSCRIBE FERNS

  -------------------------------------------------------
  Peter Bostock, Principal Botanist, Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane,
  Australia
  pbostock@ozemail.com.au (also peter.bostock@epa.qld.gov.au)

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  To sign-off this list, send email to majordomo@hort.net with the
  message text UNSUBSCRIBE FERNS

  [demime 1.01d removed an attachment of type application/ms-tnef which
  had a name of winmail.dat]
  Peter:

  If Huperzia dalhousiana (and other rare species) are so endangered,
  why
  isn't there a move to try and replicate them to save them from
  extinction, instead of laws against propagating them?
  -Thanks,
  -BN

  -----Original Message-----
  From: owner-ferns@hort.net on behalf of Peter Bostock
  Sent: Tue 04/04/06 02:18
  To: ferns@hort.net
  Subject: Re: [ferns] Australian ferns

   Wayne,

  I am a botanist with the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency -
  we
  issue collecting licences under scientific, educational and other
  permitting methods in Queensland, where the majority of these ferns
  occur.

  A great many of these would not be available in the trade, although
  stock
  plants may be held by various specialist nurseries. Many are
  endangered
  or vulnerable, and these are strongly controlled both for collecting
  within the State, and for export. Most ferns would require an export
  licence from the Australian Government, in addition to the local
  collecting permits. The exceptions would be where scientific material
  was
  being exchanged between CITES-licenced organisations and then only
  for
  non-CITES-listed species. In addition, you may very well need a
  phyto-sanitary certificate for any living plant material, I'm not
  sure if
  this includes spores.

  The Queensland Tassel ferns are very strongly controlled - most are
  vulnerable, a couple endangered, and one or two (H. phlegmaria and
  phlegmarioides, for example) are Rare. Almost all the epiphytes are
  being
  propagated by cuttings, under licence, and are becoming quite widely
  available at local plant outlets.

  You can absolutely forget about Huperzia dalhousiana, the blue tassel
  fern, which before Cyclone Larry hit the north a few weeks ago was
  known
  from perhaps 9 specimens over a 1000km range; now it may very well be
  half that. It is specifically covered in Qld legislation as being
  illegal
  to grow!

  You may like to contact the Qld EPA web site on www.epa.qld.gov.au
  and
  check out the one-stop permitting. Try the EcoAccess tab across the
  top
  of the screen, and then choose "Plants and Animals". An email to the
  staff there may help you in your enquiries.

  The Australian Government web site at www.deh.gov.au also would
  provide
  helpful information, including permitting under CITES and export
  permits.

  Platycerium veitchii and P. bifurcatum are controlled for sale even
  by
  amateurs, and I think spores would be your only suitable export
  method.
  All 4 Australian stag- and elk-horns are being grown in USA as far as
  I
  know, plus a few hybrids.

  You are welcome to try spores of Schizaea (some incl. S. dichotoma &
  S.
  bifida are widespread and common), Tmesipteris (all are protected
  plants), Ophioglossum and Botrychium species (some are quite common),
  Lycopodiella cernua (very common in coastal swamps & sandy areas),
  Helminthostachys zeylanica (relatively common across northern
  Australia)
  because as far as I am aware, none of these are amenable to spore
  culture!

  Leptopteris fraseri is quite uncommon and all populations are within
  protected areas - spores are green and short-lived so I doubt would
  survive trip to USA.

  Not sure what Teratophyllum aculeatum is, try T. brightiae -again
  very
  uncommon, restricted pretty much to protected areas.

  I've added some other notes below...I hope I don't come across as too
  negative but I strongly advise against export of most of these as
  living
  plants.

  Peter

  At 01:46 AM 2/04/2006, Wayne+Svetlana wrote:

  My wife and I will visit Australia for 2 months in Aug-Oct 2007. I
  was the AFS spore exchange manager for 5 yrs and my ultimate goal is
  to share these ferns or spores with other competent fern lovers. I
  love primitive ferns and would like to legally collect some ferns and
  their allies listed below. I love these plants and wouldn't dream of
  harming and native populations. Are there any Aussies that would be
  willing to help me in this endeavor. I would pay all expenses
  involved plus something for your trouble. I was the AFS spore
  exchange manager for 5 yrs and my ultimate goal is to share these
  ferns or spores with other competent fern lovers.

  Collect as plants:

  >Angiopteris Evecta     >> a weed on one of the Hawaiian Islands!
  Spores would probably be the way to go, if you could source them
  Marattia Salcinia       >> also can be grown from spore - not in
  Australia - this is the New Zealand species
  Marattia oreades         >> as above - this is the Australian species

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p274.jpg>Phylloglossum
  drummondii

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p292.jpg>Todea barbara
  >> green spores so difficult to transport & keep spores alive.

  Dipteris conjugata      >> quite uncommon in Australia - my view was
  that it resents cultivation, although a colleague of mine says it
  grows easily (in Papua New Guinea) on big beds of red clay - no
  fertiliser allowed and no competition from other species.

  Collect as cuttings:

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p181.jpg>Huperzia
  australiana - southern Australia
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p241.jpg>Huperzia
  phlegmaria
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p242.jpg>Huperzia
  squarrosa
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p34.jpg>Huperzia varia

  Huperzia prolifera *** relatively common in Qld, but only recently
  has this been recognised. Many plants assigned to H. varia in the
  past are actually H. prolifera.

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p244.jpg>Hymenophyllum
  flabellatum >> widespread filmy fern

  Collect as cuttings of sporophyll

  *** I doubt you will be able to export any of these as living plants
  ***
  =====================================================================

  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p252.jpg>Lycopodium
  deuterodensum
  < http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p253.jpg>Lycopodium
  fastigatum
  Lycopodiella limosa              >> very rare - restricted to eastern
  Cape York Peninsula.
  Lycopodium volubile              >> only recorded once in Australia
  (1909/1910) now presumed extinct
  Selaginella longipinna  >> widespread and common in the north of
  Queensland
  Selaginella australiensis        >> widespread and common in the
  north of Queensland
  Selaginella uliginosa            >> common - but unlikely to grow
  from spores
  Lycopodium squarrosum            >> see notes above
  Lycopodium serpentinum  ?? southern Australia
  Lycopodium proliferum
  Lycopodium polytrichoides
  Lycopodium phlegmarioides
  Lycopodium phlegmaria
  Lycopodium myrtifolium  >> this is same as H. varia
  Lycopodium fastigiatum  >> southern Australia
  Lycopodium dalhousianum >> no way! See notes above
  Lycopodiella cernuum             >> see above
  Lycopodium carinatum

  Elaphoglossum queenslandicum    >> neither Elaphoglossum is common,
  but I guess spores would be OK. Most populations would be on
  Protected reserves.
  Elaphoglossum callifolium

  Collected as spores:

  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p217.jpg>Christella
  dentata >> widespread and common, a weed of suburbia in eastern
  Queensland, and has colonised the Caribbean and Florida.

  Can't imagine you will have much luck with Isoetes - many are rare,
  and
  probably subject to State Regulations, except in Qld where we have
  only 5
  or 6 official collections for 3 species!If you find one in Qld I'd
  love
  to see it!

  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p246.jpg>Isoetes
  gunnii
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p246.jpg>Isoetes
  muelleri
  >Isoetes brevicula
  >Isoetes elatior
  >Isoetes humilior
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p95.jpg>Marsilea
  drummondii
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p273.jpg>Ophioglossum
  >lusitanicum subsp. coriaceum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p77.jpg>Ophioglossum
  pendulum
  >Ophioglossum polyphyllum
  >Ophioglossum reticulatum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p280.jpg>Platycerium
  veitchii
  >Platycerium bifurcatum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p282.jpg>Platyzoma
  microphyllum
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p288.jpg>Schizaea
  bifida
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p289.jpg>Schizaea
  dichotoma
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p288.jpg>Schizaea
  rupestris
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p169.jpg>Sticherus
  flabellatus
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p63.jpg>Tmesipterus
  truncata
  >Tmesipteris lanceolata

  Trichomanes mindorense: not sure why you picked on this one - one of
  the
  rarer filmy ferns in Queensland - there are many more that are much
  more
  widely distributed, especially in southern Australia. But as all are
  green spored, I would doubt their viability. And I suspect getting
  rhizome material out of Australia would be quite difficult.

  >Trichomanes mindorense
  >< http://www.anbg.gov.au/projects/fern/images/p293.jpg>Vittaria
  elongata

  >Psilotum complanatum   >> A high epiphyte in Northern Australia, not
  very easy to obtain. Spores impossible to grow.
  >Bolbitis quoyana       >> fairly common in north-eastern QLd
  (wet-tropics) - spores would be a goer here.
  >Christella parasitica >> relatively uncommon but weedy plant of
  pastures and rainforest margins in wetter areas of eastern Queensland
  from NSW border (30deg S) right up to the Wet tropics at 15-17 deg S.

  >Leptopteris fraseri >> see comment above
  >Helminthostachys Zeylanica >> ditto

  >Sphaerocionium lyallii     >> why would you want this? Rare filmy
  fern - I would suggest its lifespan in captivity would be shorter
  than a gnat!

  >Belvisia mucronata     >> not particularly common but easy to grow -
  spores would be the way to go here.

  >Teratophyllum brightiae >> forget it!
  >Botrychium australe     >> see above
  >Dictymia brownii       >> OK - spores would be easy
  >Pleurosorus rutifolius  >> probably OK, but quite hard to find. Only
  likes drier country W of the Great Dividing Range of eastern
  Australia and spends much of its time shrivelled up.

  >Teratophyllum aculeatum >> see above.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  To sign-off this list, send email to majordomo@hort.net with the
  message text UNSUBSCRIBE FERNS

  -------------------------------------------------------
  Peter Bostock, Principal Botanist, Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane,
  Australia
  pbostock@ozemail.com.au (also peter.bostock@epa.qld.gov.au)

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  To sign-off this list, send email to majordomo@hort.net with the
  message text UNSUBSCRIBE FERNS

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  To sign-off this list, send email to majordomo@hort.net with the
  message text UNSUBSCRIBE FERNS

-------------------------------------------------------
Peter Bostock, Principal Botanist, Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane,
Australia
pbostock@ozemail.com.au (also peter.bostock@epa.qld.gov.au)
Web http://www.ozemail.com.au/~pbostock (TRANSLAT Bot.
Latin translation program (freeware) available at web site)

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