Re: Sport Terms Forum
You asked several questions about sports from TC. The principle one
was...How can anyone be sure that in TC a sport will be obvious? Is it
posible that a TC sport occurs and will not be obvious to our eyes?
My Opinion...Yes. A mutation of genes on chromosomes in the nuclei of
cells could occur and create a sport...a silent sport. This is one we
don't "see" because it may occur on only one chromosome of a pair. Also
mutations of DNA in plastids may be silent. The same may apply to DNA in
mitochondria in cytoplasm of cells.
You raised several other questions on sports in early 1997 when Hosta-l
was still alive and thriving. I responded with two lengthy e-mail posts.
One was addressed specifically to you...the one of Mar. 30, 1997. I have
searched for them in my trashbin among 14,000 others and found them.
They are still appropos to our discussion so I will copy them in two
separate posts for those on this hosta-open forum who are interested.
Those not interested are invited to delete when
Jim Hawes wrote:
> Hosta Friends,
> There seems to be some interest in discussing sports, definitions and
> related terms. So, as promised, I will initiate the discussion with a
> few "concept statements" that may be considered conventionl wisdom and
> others that are not conventional, perhaps. These descriptive statements
> may serve as long-winded definitions of a specific term being discussed.
> In some occasions the discriptions may be speculative and should be
> identified as such. In other cases, the descriptions may be reported
> research of others in which case, it is cited as such. Other
> descriptions may be in the form of personal experiences or observations.
> As you read on, your critique of the presentation will evolve. Consider
> the old and new ideas, the old and new definitions and old and new
> observations. Make a few notes and blast away when you doubt or perhaps
> KNOW that what is being presented is weak, incomplete or just plain
> >From the suggested list of topics related to sports, I will arbitrarily
> chose the first on the list for my initial "piece" to discuss......The
> Phenomena of Sports. A working definition follows:
> 1. A sport is a gardener's term for a change in appearance in a part
> of a plant that sprouted from a bud of the plant. In Hostas, sports are
> commonly considered to be changes in the color of leaves. Thus they
> differ from the parent plant. Hosta leaves may be green (perhaps several
> intensities of green), yellow (various shades of yellow, gold,
> chartreuse, etc.)albo-marginated (with varying widths of white borders),
> aureo-marginated (with yellow, gold or cream colored borders),
> medio-variegated (with light colored centers and dark borders) and
> mosaic type variegated forms (either streaked, splashed, marbled,
> stripped or "snow flurried" types of variegation patterns).Readers are
> referred to Kevin Vaughn's two articles in the AHS Bulletin 11....
> Variegation in Hostas and Chloroplast Mutants in Hostas.
> 2. Color in Hostas....I admit freely in this forum discussion that my
> concepts regarding color on hosta leaves are speculative but areis based
> upon logical reasoning and research experiences working with plant
> materials other than hostas. I look upon color in hosta leaves as a
> function of types and populations of plastids in the cytoplasm of cells
> which constitute the leaf tissue. As a graduate student in Horticulture
> at the University of Maryland in the early 1950's I worked with plant
> pigments such a chlorophyll a and b, carotin, xanthophyll, lycopene and
> anthocyanins extracted from plant tissues with various solvents.
> Measurements of extracts were made by light transmission methods.
> Correlations of pigment concentrations and physiological conditions of
> plant material were researched. This research experience provided an
> excellent exposure to plant pigment technology which can be applied to
> the Genus Hosta to better understand color phenomena. Kevin Vaughn has
> attributed inheritance factors that determine color to the mutant
> plastids in the cytoplasm of cells (This infers that plastids themselves
> have their own DNA which can change and possibly control the nature of
> the plastids.....more on this later). I have gone a small step further
> in suggesting speculatively (in the absence of specific research to back
> up suggestions) the attribution of color variability in Hosta leaves to
> the pigments contained in the various plastids by type and population
> numbers. This subject was discussed in "Using the Artist's Palette to
> Classify Hosta Sports", The Hosta Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1996.
> 3. Definition of Modified Benedict Cross. The basic work of Kevin
> Vaughn in Chloroplast Mutants led to writings by Benedict, Wilkins and
> others in which the term "Benedict Cross" described a model of the
> relationship of five types of Hosta variants mentioned in para 1 above.
> Benedict called the streaked plant the "mother" plant which, being
> unstable,sported to green, yellow, margined and mediovariegated forms
> eventually. In 1995 and later I suggested the Benedict Cross should be
> modified by adding a circle around it and placing the various colored
> froms in an appropriate position based upon plastid (and thus pigment)
> attributes (see Clans of Sporting Clones, The Hosta
> 4. Incidences of sporting, as represented by the directional arrows
> shown in the Modified Benedict Cross (synonomous with the Artist's
> Palette), show relationships of various sports within a Group based upon
> historical records, reportings and personal observations.Note that the
> term "Clan" was never intended to be a nomenclatural aggregate of sport
> types. It was intended to be merely the title of a Journal article.
> Also note that the use of this classification tool recognizes that
> sporting occurs in many directions, perhaps in all directions, and not
> just from the streaked mother plant in the center of the graphic format
> and outward to the forms on the periphery of the circle.
> 5. Seasonal changes in plastid types and numbers.
> The mix of plastids within cells may vary during the season, thus there
> may be seasonal variation in color due to changing environments during
> the season as well as possible genetic controlling factors that affect
> color variability. Both of these subjects are complex and can be
> discussed in detail later. They are mentioned here to recognize their
> importance and to remind us to discuss them later.
> 6 In summary, I hope I have made the point that a sport is an
> all-inclusive term. What type of sport we may be discussing is defined
> by genetic and histological explanations of the phenomena involved in
> each specific example. Ben Zonneveld does this in his Journal article
> "Mutations, Recombinations, Sports and Chimaerae" (The Hosta Journal,
> Vol.27, No.1). An additional article in the Spring Edition of The Hosta
> Journal may explain these phenomena in even further detail. I look
> forward to studying it.
> Dear friends, in concluding my remarks in this email, I am aware that
> this area of related subjects is very large. To do it justice will take
> a long time. Gardening season is upon us and our email traffic will
> probably slow down considerably. This should not deter us from reading,
> thinking, making observations and posting from time to time. As our
> emails go dormant somewhat in the summer season and then break dormancy
> again in the fall (just the opposite from our Hostas, isn't it?) we will
> be ready to resume with vigor.
> I look forward to cold water frontal attacks, jabs from both flanks,
> cacaphonies of ridicule from all around but occasional support from a
> few friends. But let's have at it! We will enjoy and learn at the same
> Best Regards,
> Jim Hawes Oakland Md
> PS I hope that soon we can get into a discussion of mutations. I hope
> our Geneticist gurus are chomping at the bit to help us.
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