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RE: Easements


and to elaborate on this, we do have one of our gardens that was "given"
an easement from a low income developer for a piece of land that they
could not develop on and we are putting in a garden on that plot of
land.  It was an easement agreement with the city program directly.

Thanks for your time,
Sandy Pernitz
Community Garden Coordinator
P-Patch Program/Dept. of Neighborhoods
"A garden, where one may enter in and forget the whole world, cannot be
made in a week, nor a month, nor a year; it must be planned for, waited
for and loved into being."  Chinese Proverb
Department of Neighborhoods
700 5th Avenue Suite 1700
PO Box 94649
Seattle, WA 98124-4649
sandy.pernitz@seattle.gov
206-684-0284

>>> "Ray Schutte" <rayschutte@comcast.net> 04/15/06 8:21 AM >>>
The P-Patch Trust in Seattle gives a deed conveying conservation
easements
to the City that preserves the land in perpetuity for community gardens
and
open space.

Ray Schutte

"The truth of the matter is that the flower has cleverly manipulated the
bee
into hauling its pollen from blossom to blossom." The Botany of Desire,
Michael Pollan

-----Original Message-----
From: community_garden-admin@mallorn.com
[mailto:community_garden-admin@mallorn.com] On Behalf Of Karen Jones
Sent: Saturday, April 15, 2006 6:34 AM
To: community_garden@mallorn.com
Subject: [cg] Easements

Hi All,  I've really been enjoying the bee topic. We are going to try to
i.d. our bees this summer. But back to the land... does anyone have an
easement of any kind on their gardens, and if so, how was that
accomplished? Thanks... Karen Jones
>>> community_garden-admin@mallorn.com 04/14/06 12:00 PM >>>

Send community_garden mailing list submissions to
	community_garden@mallorn.com

To subscribe or unsubscribe via the web, visit
	https://secure.mallorn.com/mailman/listinfo/community_garden
or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
	community_garden-request@mallorn.com
You can reach the person managing the list at
	community_garden-admin@mallorn.com

When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific than
"Re: Contents of community_garden digest..."


Today's Topics:

  1. Coos Bay, South Oregon (adam36055@aol.com)
  2. European Honeybees and native species - the scientific
 perspective (William Hohauser)
  3. Re: New Urban Garden Program (adam36055@aol.com)
  4. BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY GARDENS (Mike
McGrath)
  5. Re: BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY GARDENS
(adam36055@aol.com)
  6. RE: Re: BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY
 GARDENS (Alliums)

--__--__--

Message: 1
Date: Thu, 13 Apr 2006 12:46:46 -0400
From: adam36055@aol.com
To: communitygarden@mallorn.com
Subject: [cg] Coos Bay, South Oregon

Work party to be held at community garden


Wednesday, April 12, 2006 2:18 PM PDT


Bring those drills and shovels. There will be a work party at the Lady
Bug Landing Community Garden at 9 a.m. Saturday, April 15, the corner of
Eighth and Anderson streets in Coos Bay. Volunteers will be building
garden beds and possibly moving soil into them. Those who plan to help
are asked to bring cordless drills, wheelbarrows, shovels, hard rakes,
gloves and the will to work.

Also, a work party is planned from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Earth Day,
Saturday April 22, in partnership with Americorps.

For more information, those interested can contact Don and Renee Blom,
directors of volunteers, at 269-7468.



--__--__--

Message: 2
To: community_garden@mallorn.com
From: William Hohauser <williamhohauser@earthlink.net>
Date: Thu, 13 Apr 2006 20:34:19 -0400
Subject: [cg] European Honeybees and native species - the scientific
perspective

As I promised, here are some bit of info regarding the honeybee vs  
native bee situation.

Our garden's resident scientist had this to say, "According to Jerry  
Rosen, the bee curator at AMNH (American Museum of Natural History),  
in the bee world honey bees are known as 'pollen hogs.'  In general,  
social animals have an edge that enables them to build up large  
population densities relative to non-social animals, so they require  
a bigger slice of the pie... and their 'strength in numbers' enables  
them to successfully defend their outsized slice.  I personally don't  
much care for the social bullies, and feel that the sampling we get  
in community gardens is sufficient (honeybees ARE good milkweed  
pollinators...).

One advantage to keeping honeybees in a community garden is that  
bigger bullies can then remove the honey... The second advantage is  
educational potential, which is substantial.  Although you also end  
up with increased risk of stings."


And here is a very academic list of papers about the subject. A  
summary of the summaries reveals this; 1) Studies have not yet  
conclusively proved that honeybees out-compete native bees but there  
is evidence that competition occurs and in one study honeybees do  
negatively effect native bees. 2) This topic is of great interest to  
Australians.

William Hohauser
Sixth Street and Avenue B Garden
New York City

> Notes: Honey bee competition
>
> ============================================================
> FN ISI Export Format
> VR 1.0
> PT J
> AU Paini, DR
> TI Impact of the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera :
>    Apidae) on native bees: A review
> SO AUSTRAL ECOLOGY
> AB Interspecific competition for a limited resource can result in the
>    reduction of survival, growth and/or reproduction in one of the  
> species
>    involved. The introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) is an
>    example of a species that can compete with native bees for floral
>    resources. Often, research into honey bee/native bee competition  
> has
>    focused on floral resource overlap, visitation rates or resource
>    harvesting, and any negative interaction has been interpreted as a
>    negative impact. Although this research can be valuable in  
> indicating
>    the potential for competition between honey bees and native  
> bees, to
>    determine if the long-term survival of a native bee species is
>    threatened, fecundity, survival or population density needs to be
>    assessed. The present review evaluates research that has  
> investigated
>    all these measurements of honey bee/native bee competition and  
> finds
>    that many studies have problems with sample size, confounding  
> factors
>    or data interpretation. Guidelines for future research include
>    increasing replication and using long-term studies to  
> investigate the
>    impact of both commercial and feral honey bees.
> PD AUG
> PY 2004
> VL 29
> IS 4
> BP 399
> EP 407
> UT ISI:000223057500005
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Goulson, D
> TI Effects of introduced bees on native ecosystems
> SO ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY EVOLUTION AND SYSTEMATICS
> AB Bees are generally regarded as beneficial insects for their role in
>    pollination, and in the case of the honeybee Apis mellifera, for
>    production of honey. As a result several bee species have been
>    introduced to countries far beyond their home range, including A.
>    mellifera, bumblebees (Bombus sp.), the alfalfa leafcutter bee
>    Megachile rotundata, and various other solitary species. Possible
>    negative consequences of these introductions include:  
> competition with
>    native pollinators for floral resources; competition for nest  
> sites;
>    co-introduction of natural enemies, particularly pathogens that may
>    infect native organisms; pollination of exotic weeds; and  
> disruption of
>    pollination of native plants. For most exotic bee species little or
>    nothing is known of these possible effects. Research to date has
>    focused mainly on A. mellifera, and has largely been concerned with
>    detecting competition with native flower visitors. Considerable
>    circumstantial evidence has accrued that competition does occur,  
> but no
>    experiment has clearly demonstrated long-term reductions in  
> populations
>    of native organisms. Most researchers agree that this probably  
> reflects
>    the difficulty of carrying out convincing studies of competition
>    between such mobile organisms, rather than a genuine absence of
>    competitive effects. Effects on seed set of exotic weeds are  
> easier to
>    demonstrate. Exotic bees often exhibit marked preferences for  
> visiting
>    flowers of exotic plants. For example, in Australia and New Zealand
>    many weeds from Europe are now visited by European honeybees and
>    bumblebees. Introduced bees are primary pollinators of a number of
>    serious weeds. Negative impacts of exotic bees need to be carefully
>    assessed before further introductions are carried out.
> PY 2003
> VL 34
> BP 1
> EP 26
> UT ISI:000220102000001
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Thomson, D
> TI Competitive interactions between the invasive European honey bee  
> and
>    native bumble bees
> SO ECOLOGY
> AB Biological invasions represent both an increasingly important  
> applied
>    problem and a tool for gaining insight into the structure of  
> ecological
>    communities. Although competitive interactions between invasive and
>    native species are considered among the most important mechanisms
>    driving invasion dynamics, such interactions are in general poorly
>    understood. The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a  
> widespread and
>    economically important invader long suspected to competitively  
> suppress
>    many native bee species. Yet the extent to which this introduced
>    species alters native communities remains controversial, reflecting
>    ongoing debate over the importance of resource competition in
>    regulating pollinator populations. I experimentally tested the  
> effects
>    of competition with Apis on colony foraging behavior and  
> reproductive
>    success of a native eusocial bee, Bombus occidentalis Greene, in
>    coastal California. B. occidentalis colonies located near
>    experimentally introduced Apis hives had lower mean rates of  
> forager
>    return and a lower ratio of foraging trips for pollen relative to
>    nectar. Both male and female reproductive success of B.  
> occidentalis
>    were also reduced with greater proximity to introduced Apis hives.
>    Reproductive success correlated significantly with measures of  
> colony
>    foraging behavior, most strongly with the relative allocation of
>    foraging effort to pollen collection. This pattern suggests that B.
>    occidentalis colonies exposed to competition with Apis experienced
>    increased nectar scarcity and responded by reallocating foragers  
> from
>    pollen to nectar collection, resulting in lowered rates of larval
>    production. These results provide evidence that Apis competitively
>    suppresses a native social bee known to be an important pollinator,
>    with the potential for cascading effects on native plant  
> communities.
>    This work also contributes to a greater understanding of the role
>    competitive interactions play in pollinator communities,  
> particularly
>    for social bees.
> PD FEB
> PY 2004
> VL 85
> IS 2
> BP 458
> EP 470
> UT ISI:000220108700016
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Roubik, DW
>    Wolda, H
> TI Do competing honey bees matter? Dynamics and abundance of native  
> bees
>    before and after honey bee invasion
> SO POPULATION ECOLOGY
> AB To provide replicate samples of local bee populations in a nature
>    preserve, Light traps operated continuously on Barro Colorado  
> Island
>    (BCI), Panama, collected bees for 17 years, including 10 years
>    following invasion by African Apis mellifera. Honey bees  
> appeared in
>    light traps as the first swarms colonized the Panama Canal area.  
> Their
>    numbers followed seasonal trends shown in independent studies, thus
>    indicating bee abundance and activity in a large area. No  
> measurable
>    population-level impact of competition between this invading  
> honey bee
>    and native bees, despite many demonstrations of resource  
> competition at
>    flower patch and colony levels, changed annual abundances of all 15
>    native bee species. Native bee abundance did not decrease, nor did
>    native bees show substantial reciprocal yearly change with honey  
> bee
>    abundance. One strong negative correlation of bee catches with an
>    extremely rainy year was found. However, multiple regression using
>    rainfall and honey bee abundance as the independent variables  
> showed
>    that neither was responsible for bee population change over 17  
> years.
>    Nearly half the native species declined during a year that  
> displayed
>    peak honey bee number. That competition from honey bees on an  
> island
>    the size of BCI was necessarily reduced below impact levels  
> expected on
>    the mainland is discussed using a model of resource and consumer
>    density, foraging range, and island size.
> PD APR
> PY 2001
> VL 43
> IS 1
> BP 53
> EP 62
> UT ISI:000169145300008
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Kearns, CA
>    Inouye, DW
>    Waser, NM
> TI Endangered mutualisms: The conservation of plant-pollinator  
> interactions
> SO ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS
> AB The pollination of flowering plants by animals represents a  
> critical
>    ecosystem service of great value to humanity, both monetary and
>    otherwise. However, the need for active conservation of pollination
>    interactions is only now being appreciated. Pollination systems are
>    under increasing threat from anthropogenic sources, including
>    fragmentation of habitat, changes in land use, modern agricultural
>    practices, use of chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides, and
>    invasions of non-native plants and animals. Honeybees, which  
> themselves
>    are non-native pollinators on most continents, and which may harm
>    native bees and other pollinators, are nonetheless critically  
> important
>    for crop pollination. Recent declines in honeybee numbers in the  
> United
>    States and Europe bring home the importance of healthy pollination
>    systems, and the need to further develop native bees and other  
> animals
>    as crop pollinators. The "pollination crisis" that is evident in
>    declines of honeybees and native bees, and in damage to webs of
>    plant-pollinator interaction, may be ameliorated not only by
>    cultivation of a diversity of crop pollinators, but also by  
> changes in
>    habitat use and agricultural practices, species reintroductions and
>    removals, and other means. In addition, ecologists must redouble
>    efforts to study basic aspects of plant-pollinator interactions if
>    optimal management decisions are to be made for conservation of  
> these
>    interactions in natural acid agricultural ecosystems.
> PY 1998
> VL 29
> BP 83
> EP 112
> UT ISI:000077648200004
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Oldroyd, BP
> TI Controlling feral honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera :  
> Apidae),
>    populations in Australia: Methodologies and costs
> SO AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY
> AB The level of impact of feral honey bees on the Australian  
> ecosystems is
>    controversial but may include competition with native fauna for  
> floral
>    resources or nesting sites, inadequate pollination of native  
> flora or
>    undesirable pollination of exotic flora. The precautionary  
> principle
>    suggests that control of feral bees in areas of high  
> conservation value
>    would be desirable. This raises the question of the feasibility and
>    cost of controlling or eradicating feral bees in conserved areas.
>    Possible methods for controlling feral bees in Australia are  
> reviewed.
>    It is concluded that eradication is not feasible on a broad  
> scale, but
>    would be in small areas that are heavily used by the public.
> PD JUL 3
> PY 1998
> VL 37
> PN Part 2
> BP 97
> EP 100
> UT ISI:000074980500001
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Huryn, VMB
> TI Ecological impacts of introduced honey bees
> SO QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY
> AB Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), native to Eurasia and Africa,  
> have been
>    introduced to most of the rest of the world. Many plant species are
>    used by introduced honey bees, which suggests a high potential for
>    disturbance of native plant/pollinator relationships. Few  
> species are
>    used intensively, however, thus decreasing the opportunity for
>    disturbance. Pollination studies show that honey bees are effective
>    pollinators of some native plants and less effective pollinators of
>    others; they also reduce floral resources in some species with  
> little
>    or no pollination. Data are insufficient to show whether honey bee
>    foraging on native plants significantly alters pollen and gene  
> flow,
>    but unusual foraging behavior by honey bees is not evident  
> compared to
>    many other pollinators. Honey bees do not physically damage plants;
>    they are also unlikely to increase hybridization of native flora.
>    Pollination by honey bees probably contributes little to the  
> success of
>    most weeds.
>    Experiments have not shown competition for nesting sites between  
> honey
>    bees and native fauna. The presence of honey bees, however,  
> alters the
>    foraging behavior and abundance of some native fauna on flowers,  
> but
>    not studies have shown detrimental impacts of honey bees on  
> population
>    abundance of any native animals or plants. Anecdotal and  
> quantitative
>    reports of increased honey bee abundances on flowers compared with
>    native fauna are often confounded with habitat changes induced  
> by men.
> PD SEP
> PY 1997
> VL 72
> IS 3
> BP 275
> EP 297
> UT ISI:A1997XT77700002
> ER
>
> PT J
> AU Sugden, EA
>    Thorp, RW
>    Buchmann, SL
> TI Honey bee native bee competition: Focal point for environmental  
> change
>    and apicultural response in Australia
> SO BEE WORLD
> AB Do honey bees compete for food with other bee species in nature?  
> This
>    question has been the focus of considerable scientific and  
> political
>    attention in recent years, especially, but not exclusively in
>    Australia. In this article we provide the background and  
> rationale of
>    the argument and present scientific studies which have attempted to
>    provide evidence. We also suggest some approaches to dealing  
> with real
>    issues related to honey bee competition, bee conservation, and  
> honey
>    bee management.
> PY 1996
> VL 77
> IS 1
> BP 26
> EP 44
> UT ISI:A1996UD19600004
> ER
>
> EF


--__--__--

Message: 3
From: Adam36055@aol.com
Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2006 07:18:06 EDT
Subject: Re: [cg] New Urban Garden Program
To: m_lastima@hotmail.com, community_garden@mallorn.com

Here's the link to the Baltimore City office of the Maryland State  
Extension: 
 
_http://extension.umd.edu/local/BaltimoreCity/_ 
(http://extension.umd.edu/local/BaltimoreCity/) 
 
From the website: 
 
" Urban Horticulture (410)856-1857  
Creates a healthy environment by promoting urban greening  and 
environmentally friendly horticultural practices. The Community
Gardening  segment provides 
technical and material assistance and support to groups of city 
residents who 
want to reclaim vacant lots and turn them into productive garden  space.

Extension Master Gardener volunteers serve as an extension of the 
educator and 
work with community gardeners and share information with  neighborhood,
civic, 
and faith organizations"
 
To get the best response: After the initial phone call, when dealing
with a  
state agency, it's always good to have a paper trail. .
 
 All state agencies need back up documentation at budgeting time, you  
understand that from  your job - be unstinting in following up with a 
mailed copy 
in via surface mail and as an attachment to the  e-mail. You get the
help that 
you need - you'll  become part of the  agency's "success file."  Always
look 
for  the reciprocal "win-win,'  in your relationships with agencies and 
funders....
 
Regards, 
Adam Honigman
Hell's Kitchen, NYC


--__--__--

Message: 4
Reply-To: "Mike McGrath" <MikeMcG@PTD.net>
From: "Mike McGrath" <MikeMcG@PTD.net>
To: <Adam36055@aol.com>, <community_garden@mallorn.com>
Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2006 10:14:44 -0400
reply-type=original
Subject: [cg] BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY GARDENS

STOP THE PRESSES!
    Adam may have known this study was in progress (it's based in NYC); 
released late last month, I just got it from my researcher this morning.

Haven't looked at the full doc yet, but it quantifies the many economic 
benefits community gardens bring to an area.  Hot stuff!

Here's the best graph from the abstract:
We find that the opening of a community garden has a statistically 
significant positive impact on residential properties within 1000 feet
of 
the garden, and that the impact increases over time. We find that
gardens 
have the greatest impact in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Higher

quality gardens have the greatest positive impact. Finally, we find that
the 
opening of a garden is associated with other changes in the
neighborhood, 
such as increasing rates of homeownership, and thus may be serving as 
catalysts for economic redevelopment of the community.

Here's the link to the entire abstract, with options for downloading the

full paper:
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=889113

Use it well!
                                                        ----Mike McG


--__--__--

Message: 5
Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2006 10:33:35 -0400
From: adam36055@aol.com
<008c01c65fcd$c7d160c0$3400a8c0@mikedell4100>
To: MikeMcG@PTD.net, community_garden@mallorn.com
Subject: [cg] Re: BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY GARDENS

Mike et al, 
 
The NYU Researcher has been poking around for a year or so, like they
all do, but I hadn't heard anything about the study until Pennsylvania
Community Garden stalwart Dorene Pasekoff let us all know on this
listserv about two weeks ago. 
 
The link you sent us is great - it should be linked to the ACGA website.

 
Regards, 
Adam Honigman
Hell's Kitchen,
NYC 
 
-----Original Message-----
From: Mike McGrath <MikeMcG@PTD.net>
To: Adam36055@aol.com; community_garden@mallorn.com
Sent: Fri, 14 Apr 2006 10:14:44 -0400
Subject: BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY GARDENS


STOP THE PRESSES! 
  Adam may have known this study was in progress (it's based in NYC);
released late last month, I just got it from my researcher this morning.
Haven't looked at the full doc yet, but it quantifies the many economic
benefits community gardens bring to an area. Hot stuff! 
 
Here's the best graph from the abstract: 
We find that the opening of a community garden has a statistically
significant positive impact on residential properties within 1000 feet
of the garden, and that the impact increases over time. We find that
gardens have the greatest impact in the most disadvantaged
neighborhoods. Higher quality gardens have the greatest positive impact.
Finally, we find that the opening of a garden is associated with other
changes in the neighborhood, such as increasing rates of homeownership,
and thus may be serving as catalysts for economic redevelopment of the
community. 
 
Here's the link to the entire abstract, with options for downloading the
full paper: 
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=889113 
 
Use it well! 
  ----Mike McG 


--__--__--

Message: 6
Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2006 10:56:20 -0400
From: "Alliums" <garlicgrower@green-logic.com>
Subject: RE: [cg] Re: BRAND NEW STUDY--ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY
GARDENS
To: <community_garden@mallorn.com>

Hi, Folks!

I got the study from the Women, Food & Agriculture listserv out of Iowa
-- I
was surprised to see it listed THERE first, but hey, you take these
things
where you can get them.

BTW, the organization is open to men as well -- but it was one of the
first
"Women in Agriculture" groups and while it does lean towards Iowa, folks
do
forward really great articles on it -- I learn a lot from the list and
forward the best articles as part of my private "gardener education
clipping
service" e-mail list -- a service of joining our community garden that
folks
really seem to enjoy.

Here's the contact info:

Women, Food and Agriculture Network
59624 Chicago Rd.
Atlantic, Iowa 50022
712-243-3264
www.wfan.org

Dorene Pasekoff, Coordinator
St. John's United Church of Christ Organic Community Garden and
Labyrinth

A mission of 
St. John's United Church of Christ, 315 Gay Street, Phoenixville, PA 
19460




--__--__--

______________________________________________________
The American Community Gardening Association listserve is only one of
ACGA's services to community gardeners. To learn more about the ACGA and
to find out how to join, please go to http://www.communitygarden.org

To post an e-mail to the list:  community_garden@mallorn.com

To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your subscription: 
https://secure.mallorn.com/mailman/listinfo/community_garden


End of community_garden Digest


______________________________________________________
The American Community Gardening Association listserve is only one of
ACGA's
services to community gardeners. To learn more about the ACGA and to
find
out how to join, please go to http://www.communitygarden.org


To post an e-mail to the list:  community_garden@mallorn.com

To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your subscription:
https://secure.mallorn.com/mailman/listinfo/community_garden



______________________________________________________
The American Community Gardening Association listserve is only one of
ACGA's services to community gardeners. To learn more about the ACGA and
to find out how to join, please go to http://www.communitygarden.org


To post an e-mail to the list:  community_garden@mallorn.com

To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your subscription: 
https://secure.mallorn.com/mailman/listinfo/community_garden


______________________________________________________
The American Community Gardening Association listserve is only one of ACGA's services to community gardeners. To learn more about the ACGA and to find out how to join, please go to http://www.communitygarden.org


To post an e-mail to the list:  community_garden@mallorn.com

To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your subscription:  https://secure.mallorn.com/mailman/listinfo/community_garden





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