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RE: Chemical opinion - follow up

  • Subject: RE: [ferns] Chemical opinion - follow up
  • From: "Winter, Wim de" <Wim.dewinter@wur.nl>
  • Date: Mon, 15 Nov 2004 11:37:39 +0100
  • Content-class: urn:content-classes:message
  • Thread-index: AcTJ4uT7TC8qQmgKR2C7EcSyLAisoABHCFvm
  • Thread-topic: [ferns] Chemical opinion - follow up

> What is the product your using exactly...I can't find anythin on the web
> for indoor use...does the lable specify that it has indoor uses? are you in
> the u.S.?

Nope. I  live in Holland. I use Provado Imidacloprid 2.5 % labeled for indoor
and outdoor use. This is conform the national admission, which should be (but
not necessary is) conform the European admission. From the admission file I
cite (my translation and summary):


Toxicokinetics

Oral intake

Imidaclopris was quickly taken up after oral intake by rats and redistributed
over the body, except fatty tissue, central nerve system and bones. The uptake
surpassed 90%. After 48 hrs it was excreted by urine (75-90% of dose) and
faeces (7-21%). (...) The two primary decomposition pathways being oxydative
lysis of the molecule and hydrolysis of the imidazoline ring followed by
splitting off the water molecule.


Dermal en inhalatory intake

No quantitative data available. No dermal penetration study available.
However, based on oral and dermal toxicity data it is deduced that uptake will
be minimal.
Therefore, dermal uptake is assumed 10% for the risk-assesment.


Toxicodynamics

Acute toxicity

Imidacloprid should be considered harmful to toxic (based on rat and mouse
respectively). In the inhalation study no effects were seen even in the
highest achievable concentration. Imidacloprid is not irritating the eyes nor
sensibilizing the skin.

Tabel T.1 Acute toxiciteit van imidacloprid

Route 		Species 	LD50 (mg/kg body wt)
				LC50 (mg/m3)
oraal 		muis (m) 	131
oraal 		muis (f) 	168
oraal 		rat (m) 	424
oraal 		rat (f) 	450-475
dermaal 	rat 		> 5000
inhalatoir 	rat 		> 69 (aerosol)
inhalatoir 	rat 		> 5323 (dust)


Subacute/(semi)chronic toxicity

[my summary:] 4 Weeks in dog feed doses 0, 200, 1000 en 5000 mg/kg feed. At
5000 mg/kg: poor bastard; at 1000 mg/kg: some liver damage.
3 Weeks rabbit 0 to 1000 mg/kg body wt: no effects.
4 Weeks rat inhalation: (concentrations 0, 5,5, 30,5 and 191,2 mg/m3): NOAEL
of 5,5 mg/m3, based on liver and hematology.

Long term effects comparable.


Genotoxicity/carcinogenity

Imidacloprid has no effect on tumor incidence in mice and rats. It is not
carcinogenous. Imidacloprid does cause in-vitro chromosome damage. Because the
in-vivo test were negative, it is considered not genotoxic.

Reproduction toxicology / teratogenity

No effects on reproduction could be found. In the teratogenity study, no
itrreversible changes were observed.
In the 2-generation reproduction study, the NOAEL (rat) was 100 mg/kg feed, or
5 mg imidacloprid/kg body wt.day


Neurotoxicity

Imidacloprid is a nicotine cholinerg receptor agonist.

In subacute and semichronic test in dogs indications were found of
neuropathological effects (tremor, ataxie). NOAEL 5 mg/kg body wt.

In an acute study in rats effects were observed (...)  NOAEL 20 mg/kg body wt
 (...)
The NOAEL for general toxicological effects is 140 ppm in the feed, or 9.3 and
10.5 mg/kg lg/dag (female resp. male)

(... long)

No model are available to calculate acute effects of exposure to imidacloprid
used as Provado Insect-pin. The exposure is estimated to be nihil, since:


1) contact time is short and application infrequent,

2) contact surface is minimal

3) gas pressure of imidacloprid is low  (no  inhalatory exposure).

No health effects are to be expected.

[demime 1.01d removed an attachment of type application/ms-tnef which had a name of winmail.dat]

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